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Young onset type 2 diabetes patients have an increased risk of developing diabetic retinopathy at an earlier stage and at a greater frequency, according to researchers.
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A possible genetic mechanism underlying the evolution of birds has been discovered by scientists. Studies of dinosaur fossils that show bird-like traits, such as feathers, light bones, air sacs and three-digit forelimbs, clarified evolutionary kinship of birds and dinosaurs. However, identifying genomic DNA changes during this evolutionary transition has remained a challenge.

Floating fields for fine fabrication

May. 29th, 2017 02:25 pm
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A new magnetic system could precisely control the movement of levitating objects for many manufacturing applications.

Taking control back from the cloud

May. 29th, 2017 02:24 pm
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A user-controlled file security scheme makes it possible to instantly revoke access to files hosted on Internet cloud servers.

Harnessing energy from glass walls

May. 29th, 2017 02:24 pm
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Semi-transparent perovskite solar cells have been developed that could be great candidates for solar windows, say researchers.
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The first graphene-based camera has now been developed. It is capable of imaging visible and infrared light at the same time. The camera will be useful for many applications such as night vision, food inspection, fire control, vision under extreme weather conditions, among others.
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A mobile biofeedback device has been developed for footstrike pattern modification for injury prevention and rehabilitation in runners.
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Images from LRO show a brief violent movement of one of the Narrow Angle Cameras on NASA's Lunar Orbiter in October of 2014.
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Overheated cities face climate change costs at least twice as big as the rest of the world because of the 'urban heat island' effect, new research shows.
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The quest to develop a cure for HIV has long been plagued by a seemingly simple question: how do doctors determine if someone is cured? The virus has a knack for lying dormant in immune cells at levels undetectable. Now scientists have created a test sensitive enough to detect 'hidden' HIV, and yet is faster, less labor-intensive and less expensive than the current 'gold standard' test.
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A team of scientists has designed a powerful bacterial sensor with a stable gene circuit in a colonizing bacterial strain that can record gut inflammation for six months in mice. This study offers a solution to previous challenges associated with living diagnostics and may bring them closer to use in human patients.
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A new class of 'miracle materials' has been discovered by a team of researchers who say that these organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites could be a game changer for future spintronic devices.
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Scientists have unveiled a connection between sleep disorders and neurodegenerative conditions like Parkinson's Disease. The work reveals REM-active neurons are responsible for turning on and off dreaming. Dysfunction in these cells, called REM sleep behavior disorder is associated in up to 80 percent of the cases with neurodegenerative disorders later in life.
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A new study that analyzes global satellite observations shows that vegetation alters climate and weather patterns by as much as 30 percent. The researchers used a new approach and found feedbacks between the atmosphere and vegetation can be strong, explaining up to 30 percent of variability in precipitation and surface radiation.

Vision keeps maturing until mid-life

May. 29th, 2017 01:37 pm
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The visual cortex, the human brain's vision-processing center that was previously thought to mature and stabilize in the first few years of life, actually continues to develop until sometime in the late 30s or early 40s, a neuroscientist has found.
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A new way to recover almost 100 percent of the water from highly concentrated salt solutions has now been developed by researchers. The system will alleviate water shortages in arid regions and reduce concerns surrounding high salinity brine disposal, such as hydraulic fracturing waste.
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A researcher has developed a mathematical model that determines the optimal conditions for sustainable urban distribution. The model can reduce logistical pressure in cities and make goods transport more sustainable. In some cases, it may be possible to reduce emissions in cities by seventy per cent.

Separating DNA: From hours to minutes

May. 29th, 2017 11:12 am
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Researchers have developed a glass microchip for ultrafast separation and purification of DNA fragments. The chip, moreover, is easy to produce and cheap.
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Researchers have analyzed whether self-regulation would be a good predictor of resilience. This study shows that helping these young people to bounce back from adversities by acquiring self-regulation skills such as setting goals and adjusting their path after a misstep, equips them better to do well in school and in life.
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Chemists have developed a technique that reduces the toxic effects of commercially available cigarettes. In spite of the fact that the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that some 6 million people die every year as a consequence of tobacco consumption, the number of smokers around the world is on the rise.
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In a 30-year-old study into pricing policy and tobacco consumption, it was found that increasing prices by only 1% reduces consumption by 0.5%. The results have now been published to mark World No Smoking Day on 31 May. Today a 1% increase in the price of tobacco reduces consumption by as much as 0.69%.

Engines fire without smoke

May. 29th, 2017 09:05 am
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By observing the soot particles formed in a simple flame, researchers have developed a computational model capable of simulating soot production inside the latest gasoline automobile engines1.
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For a long time, researchers thought of the visual cortex as a brain area that determines what you perceive based on information coming from the eyes. Neuroscientists now show that the area is also involved in the prediction of future events. 
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If the mother is stressed over a longer period of time during pregnancy, the concentration of stress hormones in amniotic fluid rises, as proven by an interdisciplinary team of researchers. Short-term stress situations, however, do not seem to have an unfavorable effect on the development of the fetus.
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A method that determines not only whether a chemical or substance is allergenic, but also how strong its potential for causing hypersensitivity is has now been developed by researchers. This will aid in the establishment of so-called threshold values – or how much of a substance is safe to use in a product. Until now, the only way of achieving similar results has been through animal testing.
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Body- and sex related problems constitute a distinct group of psychological ailments that is most common in middle aged women, according to scientific research.

New 'GPS' neuron discovered

May. 29th, 2017 09:05 am
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A new type of neuron that might play a vital role in humans’ ability to navigate their environments, report investigators. The discovery is an important step towards understanding how the brain codes navigation behavior at larger scales and could potentially open up new treatment strategies for people with impaired topographical orientation like Alzheimer’s patients.

Neurons can learn temporal patterns

May. 29th, 2017 09:05 am
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Individual neurons can learn not only single responses to a particular signal, but also a series of reactions at precisely timed intervals, report scientists.
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Researchers aim to improve wheat yields by increasing grain size and weight using a precise gene-editing tool known as CRISPR/Cas9.
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In adult mammal hearts, cardiomyoctyes do not proliferate following damage, like that caused by myocardial infarction. However, the inability to proliferate is not true for all animals, and even in mammals, cardiomyocyte proliferation is known.
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Scientists have built a new type of inorganic nanocomposite that makes perovskite quantum dot exceptionally stable against air exposure, sunlight, heat, and water.
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New treatment strategies over the last few decades have meant that nowadays 95% of transplanted kidneys function well for at least one year and that the average lifespan of a transplanted organ is between 10 and 15 years. In 1989, one in five kidneys was no longer functional after one year.
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We encounter phase transitions in our everyday lives when we witness water freezing or boiling. Similarly, quantum systems at a temperature of absolute zero also experience phase transitions. The pressure or magnetic field applied to such systems can be adjusted so that these systems arrive at a tipping point between two phases. At this point quantum fluctuations, rather than temperature fluctuations, drive these transitions.
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The first comprehensive study of deaths in Australian nursing homes has been published, revealing a more than 400 percent increase in the incidence of premature and potentially preventable deaths of nursing home residents over the past decade.
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A clinical trial running in parallel in three countries in sub-Saharan Africa, shows that dual therapy with lamivudine and a boosted protease inhibitor is effective as second-line treatment in patients infected by HIV with multiple mutations. Such treatment deescalation will reduce costs, side effects, and the need for virological monitoring of patients.
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The Canadian federal government's bill C-45 to legalize marijuana in Canada will jeopardize the health of young people and Parliament should vote against it, argues a new article.
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In the Neotropics, there is a whole group of so-called glassfrogs that amaze with their transparent skin covering their bellies and showing their organs underneath. A recently discovered new species from Amazonian Ecuador, however, goes a step further to fully expose its heart thanks to the transparent skin stretching all over its chest as well as tummy.

Healing wounds with cell therapy

May. 29th, 2017 08:56 am
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An experimental treatment in mice allows the reprogramming of blood cells in order to promote the healing process of cutaneous wounds. This new therapeutic approach could prove to be beneficial in healing challenging wounds in diabetics and major-burn victims.
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Offering open-access genetic testing for the inherited breast cancers BRCA1 and 2 to Ashkenazi women unaffected by cancer, regardless of their family history, enables the identification of carriers who would otherwise have been missed, a new study demonstrates.
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Children with Dravet syndrome, a severe form of epilepsy, had fewer seizures after taking a daily oral solution of the cannabis compound called cannabidiol, which does not have the psychoactive properties of marijuana, results from a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial reveal.
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A new way to improve how we measure the age of planetary evolution in our solar system has been identified by a team of researchers.
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Scientists have created artificial viruses that can be used to target cancer. These designer viruses alert the immune system and cause it to send killer cells to help fight the tumor. The results provide a basis for innovative cancer treatments.
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New genomic tools are enabling researchers to overturn long-held beliefs about the origins of populations. Until recently, assumptions about origins were based on where people were buried, but this does not take into account the migrations that scientists now know took place thousands of years ago.
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Urinary incontinence in women is common, with almost 50 percent of adult women experiencing leakage at least occasionally. Genetic or heritable factors are known to contribute to half of all cases, but until now studies had failed to identify the genetic variants associated with the condition.
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Scientists using a high-resolution global climate model and historical observations of species distributions on the Northeast US Shelf have found that commercially important species will continue to shift their distribution as ocean waters warm two to three times faster than the global average through the end of this century. Projected increases in surface to bottom waters of 6.6 to 9 degrees F (3.7 to 5.0 degrees C) from current conditions are expected.
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A new hybrid technology has been created that produces unprecedented amounts of electrical power where seawater and freshwater combine at the coast.
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Higher than normal body mass index (BMI) is known to lead to  cardiovascular ill-health in mid-to-late life, but there has been limited investigation of its effect in young, apparently healthy, adults. Researchers have now shown that having a higher BMI can cause worse cardiovascular health in those aged as young as 17, according to a new study.

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